ABA - Applied Behavior Analysis: Developed by B.F. Skinner, ABA is the science of applying experimentally derived principles of behaviors in order to create behavior change that is socially significant to the individual and the people in his environment. ABA stands alone from other types of intervention in that it is empirically validated.
Applied - Behaviors must be socially significant
Behavior - Behaviors must be observable and measurable
Analysis - behaviors are analyzed within the environment in order to determine the factors influencing the behaviors
Empirically validated - scientifically based, data driven
Pivotal Response Training (PRT) - PRT was developed primarily by Drs. Bob and Lynn Koegel at the University of California at Santa Barbara (UCSB). PRT hinges on targeting skills that are pivotal for an individual to function. Targeting these pivotal skills results in greater collateral developments in other skill areas, as a direct result of targeting the pivotal skills. Specific skills typical of a PRT program include “child choice, increased motivation, shared control, responsivity to multiple cues, self-management, of behaviors, and self-initiation of skills (e.g. self-help skills).
Positive Behavior Support (PBS) - PBS is the application of behavior analysis who engage in challenging behaviors such as self-injury, aggression, property destruction, pica, defiance, and disruption. The global goal for PBS is to provide a supportive environment for parents, teachers, care givers, and to enhance the quality of life for individuals who engage in challenging behaviors. PBS is geared toward teaching behavior change across schools, homes, and community settings.
Discrete Trail Training (DTT) - Developed by Ivar Lovaas, DTT is one strategy of ABA. Although many people think it is the same as ABA or a cure for autism, it is neither of those things. DTT is a technique than consists of one:one teaching, paired with breaking down large concepts and skills into smaller skill sets. DTT consists of bringing about change through systems of reinforcement contingencies, and punishment procedures. DTT is highly structured and uses primary and secondary reinforcers to bring about change.
Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) - Developed by Andy Body and Lori Frost, PECS was created as an augmentative communication device to aide non-verbal individuals in communicating their needs and wants. PECS consists of 6 phases of learning, with each phase as a prerequisite learning skill for the next. Although it was not initially intended to develop speech, PECS has been known to help many children communicate verbally over time.
Individual Education Plan (IEP) / Individual Family
Support Plan (IFSP) - annual goals and behavior plans are set for school settings. IEP is set for children over the age of 3 years old; IFSPs are developed for children under the age of 3. An IEP helps the individual and the school team (consisting of general education teacher, special education teacher, SLP, OT, and other team members) create goals in order to set the individual up for success in academic areas of need.
Functional Communication Training (FCT) - Used to replace challenging behaviors, functional communication training is implemented by replacing the challenging behavior with a more socially acceptable behavior, which serves the same function as the challenging behavior and produces the same level of reinforcement for the individual.
Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA) - an individualized and comprehensive process composed of interviews, assessment tools, and direct observation of the individual. The goal of an FBA is to assess target challenging behaviors and define the functions of the behavior. The functions of the behavior allow the assessor to develop alternate consequences outside of current circumstances. The FBA develops behaviors to replace with the challenging behaviors.